EXPERT PLACE IN THE SYSTEM OF SUBJECTS OF FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITY


Keywords: forensic expert, forensic expert activity, criminal proceedings, functions, properties, forensic examination.

Abstract

The article notes that one of the most important forms of using special knowledge in the judicial process is the involvement of an expert and the conduct of forensic examination. It is emphasized that the scientists have proved that from the point of view of forensic expert science as a science, forensic-expert activity acts as its object of cognition. However, beyond their attention was the characteristic of the place of an expert in the system of subjects of forensic expert activity. It is stated that forensic-expert activity can be considered as formed and relatively autonomous type of socially useful activity, which closely interacts with law-enforcement activity in general and criminal-procedural in particular in order to meet the needs of legal proceedings. It was emphasized that the development of the SED contributed to the change and further improvement of legal and procedural relations in order to improve their legal status. In this case, entities, with the exception of general ones, have their own specific tasks and, within the limits of their decision, act independently, interacting only when solving general tasks of expert activity. The article emphasizes that forensic and criminal-procedural activities are closely interconnected, sometimes intertwined and repeated, taking into account the peculiarities of the professional activity of the expert. This is due to the fact that in some cases, for example: conducting expert research, he acts as a subject of expert activity, and in case of his involvement in the criminal process, for example: appointment and conducting of examination — becomes a party to criminal proceedings. As a result of the analysis of different approaches to evaluating the properties of professional activity of the expert as a subject of expert activity, it was determined that they can be divided into general (social character, purposefulness, planning, systematic implementation) and special (legal nature, relative independence of the expert, research character, verifiability (checking) of the expert’s activity, initiative, constructiveness, correlation of individuality and collegiality, special socio-psychological atmosphere). It is also emphasized that the qualities of an expert, without which it is impossible to carry out his professional activity, include the knowledge, skills and skills acquired during his studies and professional activities. In this case, a person may perform the functions of an expert in a criminal proceeding in the presence of special and procedural conditions.

References

Aver’yanova, T. V. (2001). Sub’yekty ekspertnoy deyatel’nosti. Vestnik kriminalistiki. Vyp. 2. Moskva: Spark. 29-37 [in Russian].
Bondar, V. S. (2012). Harmonizatsiia instytutu vykorystannia spetsialnykh znan u kryminalnomu sudochynstvi. Aktualni problemy zastosuvannia novoho kryminalnoho protsesualnoho zakonodavstva Ukrainy ta tendentsii rozvytku kryminalistyky na suchasnomu etapi: mater. Vseukr. nauk.-prakt. konf. (Kharkiv, 5 zhovt. 2012 r.) Kharkiv: KhNUVS. 178-180 [in Ukrainian].
Dudich, A. V. (2016). Ekspert, yak uchasnyk kryminalnoho provadzhennia: dys. ... kand. yuryd. nauk: 12.00.09. Odesa [in Ukrainian].
Dulov, A. V. (1962). Prava i obyazannosti uchastnikov sudebnoy ekspertizy. Minsk. Izd-vo M-va vyssh., sred. spets. i prof. obrazovaniya BSS [in Russian].
Dzhavadov, F. M. (2000). Kontseptualni osnovy rozvytku sudovoi ekspertyzy v suchasnykh umovakh: avtoref. dys. ... d-ra yuryd. nauk: 12.00.09. Baku [in Ukrainian].
Dzhavadov, F. M. (2000). Kontseptualni osnovy rozvytku sudovoi ekspertyzy v suchasnykh umovakh: dys. ... d-ra yuryd. nauk: 12.00.09. Baku [in Ukrainian].
Ekspertyzy u sudovii praktytsi: nauk.-prakt. posib. Za zah. red. V. H. Honcharenka. Kyiv: Yurinkom Inter [in Ukrainian].
Forys, Yu. B. (2003). O formyrovanyy sudebno-ékspernoho prava: postanovka problemy. Teoriya ta praktyka sudovoyi ekspertyzy i kryminalistyky. Kharkiv: Pravo. Vyp. 3. 45-49 [in Russian].
Klymenko, N. I. (2007). Sudova ekspertolohiia: kurs lektsii. Kyiv: InYur [in Ukrainian].
Kofanov, A. V. (2012). Teoretychni ta praktychni aspekty diialnosti sudovykh ekspertiv. Aktualni problemy ekspertolohii: zbirnyk materialiv kruhloho stolu. Kyiv: Navchalno-naukovyi instytut pidhotovky slidchykh i kryminalistiv Natsionalnoi akademii vnutrishnikh sprav, 79-86. [in Ukrainian].
Komyssarova, Ya. V. (2013). Kontseptual’nyye osnovy professional’noy deyatel’nosti eksperta v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: dys. ... d-ra yuryd. nauk: 12.00.09. Moskva [in Russian].
Pro sudovu ekspertyzu: Zakon Ukrainy vid 25 liutoho 1994 r. № 4038-XII. URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/4038-12 (data zvernennia 11.06.2019) [in Ukrainian].
Sehai, M. Ia. (2003). Sudova ekspertolohiia — nauka pro sudovo-ekspertnu diialnist. Visnyk akademii pravovykh nauk Ukrainy. 2003. № 2 (33); № 3 (34). 740-762 [in Ukrainian].
Shepitko, V. Yu. (2008). Psykholohichni zakonomirnosti v sudovo-ekspertnii diialnosti. Aktualni pytannia sudovoi ekspertyzy ta kryminalistyky: Zbirnyk materialiv zasidannia «kruhloho stolu», prysviachenoho 85-richchiu stvorennia Kharkivskoho naukovo-doslidnoho instytutu sudovykh ekspertyz im. zasl. prof. M. S. Bokariusa (11-12 lystopada 2008r.). Kharkiv. 24-26 [in Ukrainian].
Yurchyshyn, V. D. (2012). Henezys idei nauky pro sudovu ekspertyzu. Pravova derzhava. № 12. 394-400 [in Ukrainian].
Zherebko, O. I. (2010). Sudovo-ekspertna diialnist: sutnist, pryntsypy, orhanizatsiini osnovy: dys. ... kand. yuryd. nauk: 12.00.09. Zaporizhzhia [in Ukrainian].

Abstract views: 37
PDF Downloads: 57
Published
2019-12-04
How to Cite
Snigerov, O., Bublikov, A., & Kurdets, E. (2019). EXPERT PLACE IN THE SYSTEM OF SUBJECTS OF FORENSIC EXPERT ACTIVITY. Theory and Practice of Forensic Science and Criminalistics, 20(2), 139-150. https://doi.org/10.32353/khrife.2.2019.10
Section
GENERAL REGULATIONS OF FORENSIC EXAMINATION