• T. Zanina
  • A. Kopytko
  • A. Manuilenko
Keywords: falsification, counterfeiting, falsified products; counterfeit products, expertise in the field of intellectual property, merchandising expertise, expertise of substances and materials, technical expertise, technical and forensic examination of documents a comprehensive study


Examination of counterfeit and adulterated products requires a comprehensive approach. This article discusses the concept of «fraud» and «counterfeiting», given their classification; the need to conduct comprehensive research; the main issues and challenges addressed by experts in various fields of knowledge in the study of counterfeit products. Examination of counterfeit and adulterated products, depending on which product is subject to analysis, requires a whole complex of expert studies: commodity examination (consumer characteristics of products, compliance with standards), examination of substances and materials (to determine what materials or substances the products are made of), documentary examination (product instructions, accompanying documents, warranty cards, certificates, etc), examination in the field of intellectual property (identity or similarity to the degree of confusion of registered marks for goods and services and designations applied to the studied products; presence of all essential features of the patented industrial design in the design of the external form of products or its packaging), chemical and biological examination, etc.

In General, the examination of counterfeit and falsified products is one of the means of obtaining evidence, carried out in strict accordance with the current legislation and departmental regulations. Tactics of appointment and carrying out examinations depends on a concrete investigative situation, available forces, means and methods.

The conclusion on the results of a comprehensive study provides not only the solution of the question of originality of products, but also the definition in the case of falsification of its form and type. Thus, the goods may be real in terms of intellectual property, but may be falsified in terms of consumer properties or simply defective. In addition, it is necessary to take into account not only the misappropriation of a trademark, name (brand), but also the forgery of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the goods.

Examination for the study of counterfeit and / or counterfeit products is one of the most complex examination and requires a comprehensive approach involving a large number of specialists in various fields of knowledge, requires a lot of experience, availability of information and technical support.


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How to Cite
Zanina, T., Kopytko, A., & Manuilenko, A. (2019). COMPLEX RESEARCH OF COUNTERFEIT AND COUNTERFEIT PRODUCTS: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS. Theory and Practice of Forensic Science and Criminalistics, 20(2), 573-583.