SCIENTIFIC PREREQUISITES AND METHODICAL BASES FOR THE FORMATION OF TACTICAL OPERATIONS IN CRIMINALISTICS
The scientific prerequisites and methodical foundations of tactical operations in the forensic investigative activity are studied. It’s substantiated that the methodical basis for the formation of tactical operations is the active, system-structural and technological approaches. These approaches are becoming more common in the Criminalistics, significantly expanding the opportunities and prospects for the scientific cognition in this field of knowledge. Guided by the fundamentals of the system-structural approach, it can be asserted that a tactical operation has all the attributes of a systemic formation, it should be considered as a complex real system of active type, realized by specially authorized subjects and directed at solving separate tactical (intermediate) tasks stipulated by investigative (judicial) situations. Tactical operation is considered as a systemic formation of the active type, which has such properties as integrity, structuring, hierarchy, purposefulness, relations and interaction between elements. Successful realization of the technological approach to the solution of these problems assumes the necessity ofthe development of a peculiar program, regulating the preparation and implementation of a tactical operation. The essence of the technological approach to the formation and implementation of tactical operations is the consistent performance of the system of appropriate actions, taking into account the dynamic structure of the activity on investigation of crimes and judicial supervision behind materials of criminal proceedings. It’s used for construction of typical programs of crime investigation and the judicial supervision, typical tactical operations, staging, regularity and is a basis technology of formation of tactical and criminalistic complexes aimed at the decision of separate tactical tasks. The technology of a tactical operation should be developed as a kind of criminalistics technology, derivative from investigative technology, technology of investigative (search) actions, technology for crime investigation and judicial proceeding. Prospective directions for the further researches of the considered problematics are offered.
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