THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE HONORED PROFESSOR E. O. MUKHIN INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL FORENSIC MEDICINE (to the 250th anniversary of his birthday)
The paper highlights the contribution of the well-known national scientist, doctor and teacher, honored professor Efrem Osipovich Mukhin (1766-1850) in the development and formation of national forensic medicine of the beginning of the XIX century. The life and creative path of the scientist, his most significant scientific achievements are shown. Being an anatomist, physiologist, surgeon, hygienist, teacher of N. I. Pirogov and I. V Buyal ’skii professor E. O. Mukhin stood at the origins of the creation of the forensic medical service and is known as a forensic medic, who gave most of his life to the teaching of forensic medicine at the Moscow University. Despite the fact that he was born in Ukraine and his initial way of formation was spent there, his fate was closely related with the Moscow University. His doctoral dissertation “On the stimuli acting on a living human body" was devoted to the questions of physiology. E. O. Mukhin performed forensic autopsies of corpses, including carrying out practical classes with students, paid much attention to the external examination of the corpse at the place of incidence, to the rules of formalizing forensic-medical conclusions - the protocols, created a classification of fatal wounds, considered as necessary to differentiate the murder from suicide, referred asphyxiation, drowning, the action of harmful gases, poisoning to the priorities. In the special section E. O. Mukhin singled out the science on poisons and antidotes, which he read in a separate independent course. In his works he paid special attention to questions of age determination, obstetrics and military-medical examination, establishing of self-harm, ability to perform military service. Throughout his life he was engaged in translations of foreign medical literature. In 1835, E. O. Mukhin was awarded with the title of Honored Professor. He died in 1850 in Russia, in the estate of Koltsovo, Smolensk province.
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