Theoretical and methodological model of criminalistics and its new directions


Keywords: criminalistics; model of criminalistics; forensic sciences, branches of criminalistics; medical forensics; digital forensics; nuclear forensics

Abstract

This research paper purpose is to find out tendencies of development of criminalistics in globalized world, define its borders, forecast emergence of new directions and to characterize them.

Theoretical and methodological model of criminalistics is studied, tendencies and specifics of formation of criminalistics in modern conditions are traced.

Formation of internal structure of criminalistics (its system) is considered, connection with other sciences (natural sciences, humanities, social, formal) is determined, relationship with forensic sciences (forensicmedicine, forensic toxicology, forensic psychology, forensic chemistry, etc.) and forensic expertology is established. Attention is drawn to the orientation of the forensic vector of Ukraine to a single forensic European space. Necessity of creating a new section in the structure of criminology, namely: forensic strategy is substantiated.

Origin specifics, formation and development of new branches (directions) of criminology are considered: competitive, judicial, medical, genotypic, aerospace, computer (digital) and nuclear ones. Necessity of using forensic knowledge by different parties in criminal proceedings both in while of pretrial investigation and in legal proceedings is argued. The subjects of specific expertise application of forensic knowledge should be not only the investigator, but prosecutor, investigating judge, interrogator, detective, judge, lawyer.

Emergence of new branches of criminology is associated with scientific and technological progress, the emergence of new technologies, the need to work with specific traces and complexity of collecting and examining evidence. Special attention is paid to development and formation of medical, digital and nuclear forensics.

References

Ackermann, R., Kurapka, V. E., Malewski, H., Shepitko, V. (2020). Schaffung eines einheitlichen europaisehen Kriminalistischen Raumes: Die Tatigkeit offentlicher Organisationen zur Starkung der internationalen Beziehungen. Kriminalistik. Is. 6.
Bilenchuk, P. D., Obikhod, T. V. (2017). Pravove i kryminalistychne zabezpechennia protydii yadernomu teroryzmu [Legal and Forensic Support for Combating Nuclear Terrorism]. Chasopys Kyivskoho universytetu prava. № 1 [in Ukrainian].
Bolshakov, V. B., Kosach, N. I. (2014). Rehionalni laboratorii z yadernoi kryminalistyky — instrument MAHATE i ES u borotbi z mizhnarodnym teroryzmom [Regional Laboratories on Nuclear Forensics – IAEA and EU Instrument in Combating International Terrorism]. Metrolohiia [in Ukrainian].
Dolmatov, D. O. (2014). Metody opredeleniia ehlementnogo sostava v iadernoi kriminalistike [Methods for determining elemental composition in nuclear forensics]. Sovremennye tekhnika i tekhnologii. Sektsiia 8: Fizicheskie metody v nauke i tekhnike : XX Mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. [in Russian].
Gross, G. (1908). Rukovodstvo dlia sudebnykh sledovatelei kak sistema kriminalistiki [Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter als System der Kriminalistik]. Novoe izd., perepech. s izd. 1908 g. Moskva [in Russian].
Hrytsiv, O. I. (2013). Kryminalistyka v kompiuternykh systemakh: protsesy, hotovi rishennia [Criminalistics in Computer Systems: Processes, Ready-Made Solutions]. Visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu «Lvivska politekhnika». Avtomatyka, vymiriuvannia ta keruvannia. № 774. URL: http:// nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/VNULP_2013_774_22 [in Ukrainian].
Karabut, L. V. (2012). Shchodo formuvannia dokaziv pid chas dosudovoi kryminalnoi protsesualnoi diialnosti za novym KPK [Regarding the formation of evidence during pre-trial criminal proceedings under the new Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine]. Chasopys Natsionalnoho universytetu «Ostrozka akademiia». Seriia «Pravo». № 1 (5) [in Ukrainian].
Kliuiev, O., Simakova-Yefremian, E.(2021). Doktrynalni pidkhody do sudovoi ekspertyzy v Ukraini [Doctrinal Approaches to Forensic Science in Ukraine]. Pravo Ukrainy. № 8 [in Ukrainian].
Kurapka, V. Eh., Malevski, G. (2019). Nauchnaia kontseptsiia kriminalisticheskoi politiki v strategiiakh organov pravoporiadka kak innovatsionnyi proryv v obespechenii sozdaniia obshchego evropeiskogo kriminalisticheskogo prostranstva [Sientific Concept of Forensic Policy in the Strategies of law Enforcement Agencies as an Innovative Breakthrough in Ensuring the Creation of a Common European Forensic Space]. Innovatsiini metody ta tsyfrovi tekhnolohii v kryminalistytsi, sudovii ekspertyzi ta yurydychnii praktytsi : mat-ly mizhnar. «kruhl. stolu» (Kharkiv, 12.12.2019). Kharkiv [in Russian].
Lukashevych, V. H. (2016). Dokazy ta dokazuvannia v kryminalno-protsesualnomu ta kryminalistychnomu vymiri [Evidence and Proof in the Criminal Procedure and Forensic Dimension]. Derzhava ta rehiony. Seriia: Pravo. № 1 (51). URL: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/drp_2016_1_16 [in Ukrainian].
Pravovadoktryna Ukrainy (2013). U 5 t. T. 5: Kryminalno-pravovi nauky v Ukraini: stan, problemy ta shliakhy rozvytku [Legal Doctrine of Ukraine. In 5 vols. Vol. 5: Criminal Law Sciences in Ukraine: State, Issues and Ways of Development] ; za zah. red. V. Ya. Tatsiia, V. I. Borysova. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Samoilenko, O. A. (2020). Osnovy metodyky rozsliduvannia zlochyniv, vchynenykh u kiberprostori [Fundamentals of Methods of Investigating Crimes Committed in Cyberspace]: monohrafiia / za zah. red. A. F. Volobuieva. Odesa. URI: https://hdl.handle.net/11300/13264 [in Ukrainian].
Seulskoe kommiunike [Seoul Communiqué]: priniato na Seulskom sammite po iadernoi bezopasnosti 2012 g. (26—27.03.2012) : IAEA INFCIRC/838 (31.05.2012). URL: https://www.iaea.org/ sites/default/files/publications/documents/ infcircs/2012/infcirc838_rus.pdf [in Russian].
Shchodo zakhodiv u sferi yadernoi kryminalistyky [Regarding Measures in the Field of Nuclear Forensics] / Derzhavna inspektsiia yadernoho rehuliuvannia Ukrainy : ofits. vebportal. URL: https://snriu.gov.ua/news/shchodo-zakhodiv-usferi-yadernoi-kriminalistiki [in Ukrainian].
Shepitko, M. V. (2020). Kontseptualni zasady rozvytku kryminalistyky ta sudovykh nauk [Conceptual Bases of Development of Criminalistics and Forensic Sciences.]. Arkhiv kryminolohii ta sudovykh nauk : nauk. zhurn. № 1 [in Ukrainian].
Shepitko, V. Yu., Olkhovsky, V. O., Shepitko, M. V. (2020). The Process of Scientific Knowledge Integration in Crime Prevention and Trends of Medical Criminalistics Development in Ukraine in XIX — early XX century. Wiadomości lekarskie. T. LXXIII. Nr 1. DOI: 10/36740/WLek202001133.
Shepitko, V. Yu., Zhuravel, V. A., Konovalova, V. O. ta in. (2019). Kryminalistyka [Criminalistics]: pidruchnyk. U 2 t. T. 1 ; za red. V. Yu. Shepitka. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Shepitko, V., Shepitko, M. (2021). Doktryna kryminalistyky ta sudovoi ekspertyzy: formuvannia, suchasnyi stan i rozvytok vUkraini [Doctrine of Criminalistics and Forensic Science: Formation, Current State and Development in Ukraine]. Pravo Ukrainy. № 8 [in Ukrainian].
Shepitko, V., Shepitko, M. (2021). Formuvannia tsyfrovoi kryminalistyky yak stratehichnyi napriamok rozvytku nauky [Formation of Digital Forensics as a Strategic Direction of Science Development]. Kriminalistika a Forenzné Vedy: Veda, Vzdelávanie, Prax. Zborník rríspevkov 17 Medzinárodný kongres (Bratislava, Slovenská republika, 16—17.09.2021). Bratislava [in Ukrainian].
Shepitko, V., Shepitko, M. (2021). Kryminalne pravo, kryminalistyka ta sudovi nauky [Criminal Law, Criminalistics and Forensic Science]: entsyklopediia. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Tsekhan, D. M. (2013). Tsyfrovi dokazy: poniattia, osoblyvosti ta mistse u systemi dokazuvannia [Digital Evidence: Concepts, Features and Place in Evidence System]. Naukovyi visnyk Mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu. Seriia: Yurysprudentsiia. № 5. URL: http:// nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Nvmgu_jur_2013_5_58 [in Ukrainian].
Ukrainian Legal Doctrine in Five Volumes (2018). V (2): Judicial Law, Penal Law, and Forensic Legal Sciences. Ed. by V. Ia. Tatsyi and V. I. Borysov. London, 2018.
Velyka ukrainska yurydychna entsyklopediia [Great Ukrainian Legal Encyclopedia] (2018). U 20 t. T. 20: Kryminalistyka, sudova ekspertyza, yurydychna psykholohiia; redkol.: V. Yu. Shepitko (holova) ta in. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Yusupov, V. (2021). Istoriia formuvannia doktryny kryminalistyky v Ukraini [Formation History of doctrine of Criminalistics in Ukraine]. Pravo Ukrainy. № 8 [in Ukrainian].
Zhuravel, V. A., Shepitko, V. Yu. (2021). Rozvytok kryminalistyky ta sudovoi ekspertyzy v Ukraini: nablyzhennia do yedynoho yevropeiskoho prostoru [Development of Criminalistics and Forensic Science in Ukraine: approaching the single European space] / Pravova nauka Ukrainy: suchasnyi stan, vyklyky ta perspektyvy rozvytku : monohrafiia. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].

Abstract views: 19
PDF Downloads: 16 PDF Downloads: 5
Published
2021-12-30
How to Cite
Shepitko, V. (2021). Theoretical and methodological model of criminalistics and its new directions. Theory and Practice of Forensic Science and Criminalistics, 25(3), 9-20. https://doi.org/10.32353/khrife.3.2021.02