CURRENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF DAMAGES ON FIBER STRUCTURE MATERIALS
Among main issues to be resolved while forensic examination of fibrous materials is the questions of detecting a mechanism of their damage formation. Examinations on detecting a materials damage mechanism are often appointed while crime investigations of various categories. At the same time, a damage differentiation, detecting the mechanism of their creation is difficult and problematic. Successful solve a number of tasks of forensic science the implementation of modern instrumental techniques application, among which scanning electron microscopy takes a relevant place that makes possible to directly observe the microstructure features of textile fibers, to make photographic evidence and to use photographs as illustrative material in expert conclusions. For performing research, materials were collected and experiments were performed to reproduce various mechanical, chemical, thermal and biological damages. While performing research using scanning electron microscopy, features of the structure and microrelief of the surface of the ends of fibers were revealed. While detecting damage type in default of damage instruments a expert should compare signs established of investigated damage with known signs typical for various kinds of damage and to reach a conclusion about possible type of used instrument for investigated damage. Performing complexes of experimental investigations of various damage types of different fibrous materials enables differentiation of chemical, mechanical, thermal and biological damages, detection of micromarks that individualize the object (factor) of action, increase of the potential for obtaining trace information about actual data and circumstances of the event in cases where it is impossible to diagnose the damage by external morphological features. Results of performed researches are positive for the creation of the methods of microscopic investigations regarding materials damage of fibrous nature in order to perform diagnostic and identification tasks.
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