USE OF INFORMATION AND REFERENCE COLLECTIONS FOR TRACE EVIDENCE EXAMINATIONS
In most cases while performing trace evidence examinations the research volume depends questions asked an expert. Issues are identifying (sameness determination, group affiliation) and non-identifying (establishing a trace-forming mechanism). Although identifying researches are more important while truth establishing and have some probative value in criminal and other processes, the research of non-identifying nature is also important. However, thanks to them an expert establishes the kind of trace-forming object on general features reflected in traces. Use of information and reference collections is a significant help while performing examinations of a non-identifying nature.
Using natural objects from collections allows to establish qualitative or quantitative properties of real evidence, to attribute them to certain groups (kind) of objects. This is accomplished by comparing the research object with samples from collections, which results in coincidence or differences in their generic characteristics. Evaluation of these coincidences or differences allows determining that studied object belongs to (or does not belong) a group (kind, class) of the relevant objects in the collection or that it arose as a result of a certain trace-forming mechanism.
For example if for an expert it is necessary to find out the trace-forming mechanism of dynamic traces, having the collection natural objects; it is possible to perform a number of expert experiments and according to these results to reach a certain conclusion.
Thus, the use of information and reference collections while performing trace evidence examinations in procedural form (while performing examinations) is a simple and accessible support means for correct and scientifically substantiated answering to questions asked an expert. Effectiveness of using such collections depends on objects number or volume of information contained in, their systematization and classification, as well as expert ability to apply objects of these collections at one or another stage of expert research.
Abstract views: 95 PDF Downloads: 175